Overview of Russian schemes voltage converters with 12 V to 220 V (for the manufacture of their own hands)
Voltage converters from 12 V to 220 V interesting to anyone who travels a lot and spends a lot of time in the car. We have to be fed and to charge a laptop, PDA, wireless headset, cell phone, sometimes even need a car fridge (better, of course, at 12 volts, are sold). This converter can be connected to the cigarette lighter or the battery. Connect directly to the battery is as thin wires in the cigarette lighter, and a lot of power is consumed when charging. For notebooks should have a DC-DC inverter, it makes no sense to convert 12V to 220V, include inverter laptop power unit, which is again 220 converts to 19 (roughly the laptop power). But this introduction, we go to practice.
Simple low-power converter circuit on the Russian element base
Reliable, but low-power circuit
Analogs to use Russian transistors, diodes and chips:
- VT1 - VT2 (КТ973) - BD876, BD682, MJE270;
- VT3 - VT4 (КТ805) - BD123, BDY60, 2N3054, 2N3766;
- D1 (К561ЛН2) - CD4049A (characteristics), CD4069 (for pinout)
- circuit tested, not fail;
- if you do not need the power and charge the phone, and flashlights - what you need;
- not every uninterruptible power supply will work in this mode.
- low power (50W);
- moral old age.
How does the inverter circuit
In the scheme of three functional units: sets the flip-flop (generates pulses of 50 Hz, the inverter output), push-pull power amplifier transistor key, step-up transformer.
At the heart of the multivibrator - D1 chip (D1.1 + D1.2). The values of R1, C1 is set multivibrator frequency. Inverter - Output D1.4 chip. Transistors VT3, VT4 enhance the power of the pulses, which takes low voltage winding trance T1. low-voltage winding of the pulse current in the high voltage winding of the induced voltage is 220 V, its shape is similar to a sine wave. Raising coil and a capacitor C4 form a circuit tuned to a frequency of 50 Hz, this improves the shape of the output voltage.
D1 chips can be replaced by other inverters - chips CD4011. CD4001.
Step-up transformer can be any network with power transformers 50-100 W with primary winding 220 and two secondary - 10-15 In each (can be one having a middle tap 20-30 C). At the same time we must remember the contrary the inclusion of the transformer!
Transistors VT3 VT4 and radiators need for reliable heat dissipation.
Source - Russian magazine "РадиоКонструктор" №5/1999, p. 27.
Simple converter 110-130 W circuit (75 Hertz)
- easy assembly;
- reliable, not afraid of overload and short-circuit;
- a cheap cost.
Disadvantages: heavy and bulky.
The basis of this design - the simplest circuit inverter DC / AC voltage, in compliance with all the parameters of the establishment is not required, it is possible to manage only a soldering iron. After the power supply circuit starts immediately, no configuration (of course, you need to measure the output voltage). Use common collector, all the transistors can be mounted on one heat sink, insulating spacers are not needed. Installation of curtain.
- resistors - 5-10 ohms, 0.5 watts;
- resistors power part - 5-10 ohms, 2 W;
- capacitor on the output of the inverter - 0.3-0.8 mF 400 V (not electrolytic and polar);
- transistors T1 and T2 - almost any PnP structure (2SB906. BD434, 2SD685, 2T7534C, 2SB834, 2SB906, 2N6111) or others close to them on the parameters;
- T3-T6 transistors ... T10 - and PnP structure (2T7534C, 2SB834, 2SB906, 2N6111 KT837, 2N5193, 2N6132, 2N6469) or others.
The choice of the type of power transistors of the inverter will depend on the inverter output. The best option - FETs, but the need to replace the resistors to a high resistance, suitable for the selected type of transistor.
The clock is assembled on transistors T1-T2, 2 resistors and the transformer Tr1.
Transformer TR1 (ТР1):
- winding 1 and 4 - 10 turns;
- winding 2 and 3 - 30 turns on;
- winding 5 and 6 - 10 turns.
All windings can be of any brand to wind wire diameter of 0.4-0.5 mm. For better synchronization channels desirable windings 1 and 4, 2 and 3, 5 and 6 bifilar shake, that is, two wires together.
Transformer TR1 (TP1) - w-shaped gland at the core with the cross section area of at least 4 cm (if the section is insufficient, the master clock will run at higher frequencies, from 800 Hz to 10-12 kHz, what prompts high-pitch noise transformer). You can take out the TV bw lamp transformer, it is small size.
Depending upon the type of transistors and a transformer on the voltage and frequency of the windings 5 and 6 may change. Normal for the power section of the inverter voltage is 7-10 V.
When assembling the oscillator component values of both channels must be strictly identical to ensure synchronous operation of all of the inverter. Particular attention should be paid to the correct phasing of the windings 1, 2, 3 and 4. Start all windings are indicated by dots.
Transformer TR2 (TP2):
- winding 3 wound wire diameter 0,5-0.8 mm contains 600 turns;
- winding 1-2 - wire 2 mm in diameter, 24 turns;
You can use ready-made network transformer having 2 outputs to 12 volts, simply by connecting the "vice versa." But in this case you may have to adjust the number of turns of the secondary winding 3. The output power will depend on the type of transistors, their number and overall power transformer. Well, the component values of both channels must be identical.
Waveform inverter pulse output:
Simple low-power two transistors
Russian equipment used in the following very simple and reliable circuit voltage converter from 12 to 220 (designed for energy-saving lamps). The scheme does not require adjustment, there transistor 2, a capacitor, two resistors and the transformer.
Analogs to use Russian transistors, diodes and chips:
- КТ814Б - BD136;
- КТ940А - 2SC1569, 2SC2068, 2SC2242, 2SC2456, BF298, BF299, BF338, BF459, BF470, BF617;
Transistors are chosen for minimum current consumption, under which determine the resistance and capacitance ratings are indicated in the diagram.
This design is perfect for energy-saving lamps 8,9,11 W power, current consumption ranges from 0.5 to 0.54 A.
The transformer is made of ferrite cup diameter 35 mm, height of 20 mm. Initially, the primary winding is wound - 14 turns, 0.5 mm diameter wire, after winding an insulating tape is wrapped in a single layer. The secondary winding - a wire 0.2 mm in diameter, 220 turns of winding on top and tape in one layer. Then the frame with winding placed in a ferrite cup and sits on the bolt.
Below are the photos.
The inverter feeds the energy-saving lamp
To view the schemes more powerful transmitters, click on the figure 2
More power devices schemes
Inverter 400 Watt
The circuit consists of a master oscillator (Russian chip A1 - KR1211EU1, direct analog does not, but you can try to replace on IR2151, IR2152, IR2153, IR2155, IR2520 (functional approach) - is an oscillator with two outputs: direct and inverse, respectively, 4 and 6), two keys (field workers VT1 and VT2), transformer T1 (step-up).
Pin 1 when it is supplied to a high signal level, stops the oscillator in this implementation is not used, the circuit has a signal at a constant low level.
The oscillation frequency is determined by R1 - C1, reliable start-up generator provided R2 - C2. Stabilizer (elements R3, VD1, C3, stabilization of 8-10 volts) powers the chip.
At the exit - a push-pull stage: two powerful field IRL2505 transistor (with a load of up to 200 W radiators are not required, if possible a large load - radiators are required).
The transformer can be any network anywhere from two to 12 obmotkmi The required power, better toroidal can be different, but must observe the following conditions: power transformer must exceed the estimated load of 2 (if it is a toroidal core) - 2.5 times. Example: if the load will be 100 W - 250 W power need, if the toroidal - 200 watts.
Capacitor C6 (it smooths pulse) - can be Russian K-73-17, or an analog thereof (for example CL-21), 400 V or higher. When the power consumption is large, with a current of 12 volts can exceed 40 A, which is why in the section and the length of the power bus should pay attention.
A powerful voltage converter with 12V to 220V
It designed for loads up to 1000 watts, requiring AC voltage of 220V. Use old Russian transistors П216 (their can replaced by 2N588, 72N5888, 2N5889, AD138, AD302, AD312, EFT212, EFT213, OC25, SFT238) that radio amateurs can still be found in his farm.
As the oscillator VT1 transistors are used here, VT2 and transformer T1 - given the frequency of 200 Hz. The secondary winding of T1 sends a signal via capacitors to the electrodes of the thyristors VD1, VD2, which create a surge voltage in the first winding of the transformer T2.
The non-polar capacitor C4 (its capacity) is chosen so that its voltage thyristors alternately closes. Resistor R3 are protected by a 12 volt circuit overload during opening thyristor.
In the transformer T1:
- at the core - 16x10 plate;
- in the winding 1 - 40 + 40 turns Russian ПЭЛ 0.8 (winding wire diameter 0.8);
- in the winding 2 - 10 + 10 0.3 Russian ПЭЛ turns (winding wire diameter 0.3);
- in the winding 3 - 20 + 20 turns of Russian ПЭЛ 0.3 (winding wire diameter 0.3).
In the transformer T2:
- core - 50x60 plate;
- in the winding 1 - 40 + 40 turns wire Russian ПЭЛ 0.8 (winding wire diameter 0.8);
- in the winding 2 - 460 turns of PEL 0.8 wire.
The inverter circuit 300 watt
Here is a reduced scheme, a full-size diagram for a more comfortable viewing here.
- trouble-free operation with a load of up to 300 W;
- You can load up to 650 W (at strong heating wires and the voltage drops to 190 V).
- the complexity of the required imported equipment;
- higher cost.
The transformer can serve as switch mode power supply (non-working old television is just right). It is necessary to rewind, whittle away at the gap ferrite (if two of these transformers take one half of the ferrite does not have anything to grind).
The converter transformer can use two rings, both 40x25x11 glued together. Primary - the same as in TPI-3, secondary - 60 turns.
Primary - in the two windings 3 reason 0.8 at the shoulder - in one arm, and 5 turns in the second arm 5 turns.
Secondary - two wires to 0.8. When winding used test method. First half of the secondary - two wires 0.8 + insulation, then two primary shoulder again insulation, once the secondary - it customize for the desired voltage (230 V).
As the body better use the computer ATX power unit, it has a cooler, which is better to leave and apply for cooling at high load.