Solar panels. Reviews, recommendations ...
Pros and cons of using solar cells, solar owners reviews and recommendations for those who want to buy them - is the subject of this article, written after objective analysis of materials of different forums and online publications.
Clarify terminology. There are three types of solar systems.
- Systems in which the solar heat is transferred coolant (antifreeze or water) circulating between boiler - storage and solar panels, more precisely solar collector. Such systems have the highest efficiency, the cost of operating only during summer from $ 400-500, at prices running from $ 1000 round.
- Systems that warm air flowing from the room through sun screen, after which the heated air flows back into the room. Such systems are rarely used.
- Solar panels generating electricity directly constant, which is stored in batteries and large-capacity through converter constant power variable is given to the consumer. their cost in recent years has decreased significantly: up to $ 1-3 per watt.
Sometimes you can buy a solar battery at a very low price. The reasons for the low price:
- possible scratches on the frame;
- yellowing may occur on a plastic substrate (outside the working zone of the panel);
- silicon elements can vary in shade.
The manufacturer points out that these reasons are purely visual and does not affect the performance of the solar modules (all panels are tested and secured 10-15 year warranty).
User feedback on the solar panels work
(References cited, corrected only glaring spelling error)
The first review
Heating systems that convert solar energy into heat is quite effective, unlike photovoltaic batteries. Why? Cost is low, in fact the whole system consists of the collector and the heat accumulator. Collector - heat exchanger with blackened porous surface enclosed glass, a kind of greenhouse. Heat Accumulator - a container of coolant wrapped insulating material. That's the whole structure, the cost of its hundred dollars per kilowatt of energy issued. Service is almost not required, will work for a long time without repair due to its simplicity. Only need to periodically wash the dirt from the surface of reservoirs, about once every six months. Completely eliminate the use of gas will not allow, but will give a good opportunity to save on heating, once again, it is because of such systems is very low cost. But!!! What is proposed in the Russian market by sellers of such equipment, it's just some kind of anecdote, the prices set by them dozens of times higher than the cost! What should it cost ten thousand rubles is to be bought for a few thousand dollars!
The second review
I set myself to the country a small panel, like the generator, but the generator noise, and I was going to the cottage is just noise. Batteries have enough to charge the netbook, in a house full coverage. Lighting made himself of LED lamps, where one lamp 4 diode on the bar 4 = 16 LED lamp, all in the house a total of 50 LEDs, plus sometimes the battery powered low voltage pump (12 volt) which supplies water from the well. No other consumers. Battery lead, maintenance-free.
The third review
I live not far from Kotlas (north). Bought in April, the two solar panels of 250 watt monocrystalline, the controller 20 A, 150 A/h battery helium and 1 kW inverter. April 10 has established and is still normal flight. Powered refrigerator (small), TV + satellite for three hours a day, energy-saving lamps lighting 5 (want to replace diode), a stereo, a small pump every day. For all missing. In the winter I live in a city apartment, so in winter the solar panels do not use. But I think that for the winter would have to take at least four solar panels and two batteries 200 A / h.
The fourth review
I have 2 modules of 75 W and 2 automotive battery with 90 ampere / hour plus transformer 1500 W (converts 12 v 220 v). For lighting the house, porch, kitchen, toilet, workshop and land (8 acres) use only LED lamps to 1 W at 12 v. Enhances light mirrored ceiling. From the 220 v 3 working fountain to clean the pond filter, and you can work with an electric drill, winepress, and others. From November to March we were not there, and in the summer it is quite enough. For example, the filter works in a day of 8 hours in the evening and still light everywhere. Picking up quickly. Of course, for a lawn mower, pump for irrigation this is not enough, I have to do is, gasoline mower and gasoline pump.
To highlight the country house, pergola area and we need to:
- 5 meter high-brightness LED strip - $ 20;
- solar panel 100W - $ 100;
- charge controller 10 A - $ 20;
- battery 26 A / h - $ 65;
- cable - 100 meters, 60 dollars.
Total: $ 265, and we are all his own, all for free (you will agree, this is not the hundreds of thousands of dollars at a stupid approach from the wrong side). The biggest disappointment comes at the moment of the final count - this system will never pay for itself not. After 5 years, will have to change the battery, after 20 years of the panel, next week will want to connect more TV / radio / laptop / tablet and need to add batteries and panels.
About the advantages of using solar panels says the following review (it seems from the seller of solar panels).
Photovoltaic (solar) battery service life is not limited (no noise, no smell, do not pull cans, change the oil and gasoline generator pays for three years. You listen to the birds, the tracks on the mountain, and do not inhale CO2).
Think of a simple calculator - he works at minimum illumination. Also, the solar cell, from dawn to dusk, "in silence" does the trick. While efficiency in cloudy weather, of course lower than the sun.
Electrical energy you have at any time, not just when the generator work zavedёnnogo with the forty-eighth attempt, and tarahtyaschego to the delight of you and the neighbors.
You always charged: screwdriver, phone, camera and more. Easy to install the cheapest car alarm and your wealth, "somehow" protected.
A solar cell provides the necessary coverage, the work of a small TV set, water pump, trim.
And with the installation and connection handle any who had studied in school.
The batteries applied toughened, textured glass, which does not reflect the rays, allows you to collect 15% more of the scattered radiation, and ignores any degree, if it is not with a gun.
Why 220 ?, because many appliances have a 12-volt, and are often cheaper.
It refrigerators, energy-saving lamps, water pumps, air conditioners, etc.
Look in the shop automotive products, there elektropledy and boilers, fans and transportation, lighting, compressors (guests mattress pump, ball, wheel). Not to mention the charge cell phone and cigarette lighter.
Most LCD TVs "eats" it is this tension, not to mention the car alarm, which is the most reliable and cost-effective option for protection.
Agree, it is inappropriate to use the inverter where there is no urgent need, because he uses at least 10% to give energy!
Reviews, which refers to the disadvantages of the use of solar panels
The first review
The purchase will be unprofitable, because the electricity in Russia is very cheap. But solar panels are very, very expensive, plus installation. Connecting all the systems to them worth decent money. Batteries just do not bring you benefits, but will be a very long article in the budget. And besides, they have to be periodically serviced.
The second review
At the moment, the economic benefits do not! This is verified. Costs do not pay for themselves. Slightly more favorable wind generator, but it is not an alternative to electricity with the free access to it. Problem: The battery must be periodically cleaned of dust and dirt, the batteries should be maintained and kept in a special room, it is necessary to establish an interface with the existing network. So if you need a light to the country - try to petrol or diesel generator.
Reviews, which is an attempt to summarize and outline the prospect of using solar
The first review
I want to share information on the operation of the solar panels. First of all, you need to understand the purposes for which they can be installed. If a building with a lot of energy-consuming devices, the soit will be expensive. If the need for a single cabin (private home), it is not very expensive. Especially because the solar panels can be installed in parallel with an existing connection to the central power grid. Part of the energy-consuming devices will run on the core network (typically are devices with high power consumption) and a part of the solar panels. The required number of batteries can be calculated based on the total energy consumption at home per day. For example, the total consumption of 5000kVt, one battery power for example 220W (produced range from 5 to 230) of insolation rate 5 hours.
220 * 5 = 1100 (W / h)
5000 / 1100 = 4.5 = 5 (pieces)
Secondly, except the battery, it is necessary accompanying equipment: batteries, converter, inverter and connecting wires.
And, third, it should be recalled that the price of electricity is steadily growing each year. And with solar panels we have some independence in the future. Timing solar operation is approximately 25-30 years, and depend on the operating region and the material from which they are made.
The second review
And I recently heard that in some countries people are installing free solar panels on the roof. And if you do not use all the energy you can sell it back to the state. Many people were surprised when eventually it was pointed out that they also have electricity. I wonder if we will ever be like that ?!
The third review
Solar panels in the first time I saw 15 years ago, and strangely enough - in Siberia, where it reaches 40 degrees in the winter frosts. The homes are not seen, but the successfully work in office-type buildings and solar panels in the rooms is really warm. In the region of about 300 sunny days a year. Because solar cells have been successfully used for space heating. Moreover, the solar panels are not used as an alternative energy, as well as the main source of heat. But in Israel, where I often visit, visiting relatives, solar panels equipped with all public buildings and homes. Not in the same house or apartment could not see the usual for us radiators, almost all homes - or "warm floor" or "warm wall." A solar energy enough to the house was always hot water. If the day is cloudy (which happens very rarely), the water is heated to the desired temperature heating elements.
In Italy, solar panels puts public institution at its own expense, you use free the part that you need, the rest takes and redistributes state. As the owner of this battery is a state organization, you do not get revenue, but the cost of heating and lighting are zero. Our friends put such a system, very satisfied. Moreover, the gas in Italy is rather big amount of euros.
Food for Thought (data for 2012)
Germany has set a new record in the field of alternative energy. The solar power plant of the country reached a level of energy production, which is comparable with the results of its full capacity of 20 nuclear power plants.
Control measurements were carried out by experts in the midday hours on Friday and Saturday, and showed that the solar plant produced 22 gigawatts of electricity per hour. This is almost half of the electricity consumed in Germany at midday.
Last year, the German government decided to abandon the construction of nuclear power - after the accident at the Japanese "Fukushima-Daiichi" station, caused by the earthquake and tsunami. By 2022, all currently operating nuclear power plants must be shut down in Germany.
Reviewed by summing up what has been said
- Solar panels are used where there is no electricity at all, or it is very costly (for example, in Ukraine, businesses pay 5 times the price of ordinary consumers and they have a limit, beyond which the rate rises to 20 times)
- This autonomy and independence. You do not depend on natural disasters, from the vagaries of energy supplying companies
- It is fashionable, it is beautiful and stylish. You can soothe himself by the fact that the charge of a mobile phone, you do not burn a ton of oil :).
P.S. To reduce the cost of the system. You can use any old unnecessary battery. It is not necessary to take 5 meters super bright ribbons, and can be a conventional 120 or diodes 60 diodes and is not always necessary to 5 meters. Do not turn the lights on all night long, save!
P.S.S. The panel does not need to put on the roof, it is possible in the garden or on the wall - almost vertically. It will be even better, because the winter sun "goes" low and make the system better for winter, electricity in the summer should be significantly less.
P.S.S.S. Do not try to assemble a system on huge panels 200-300 watts. Differences between the price of 100 watts and 200 no, but you sail on the wall is pretty big and heavy, as if not torn. I believe that the best two or three "hundreds" rather than one large panel.
To view the recommendations, click on the figure 2.
Recommendations for installation of solar panels for those who decided to buy them
Mounting solar panels by means of laser screws or threaded connections in any convenient place of aluminum, the profile of the frame.
Orient solar panels try strictly to the south. It comes from the south of the maximum sunlight. They pass the atmosphere at a right angle, with minimal losses.
From the east or west, the sun's rays are the atmospheric layers diagonally with significant losses. The human eye adapts itself during the day, and it seems that the sun shines equally in the morning, afternoon and evening. In fact the difference in coverage is significant. This ensures you of any photographer. Therefore, the installation angle relative to the horizon for all year round use must be the same parallel. To St. Petersburg is 60 degrees. Well, if it is possible to change the angle of at least twice a year. The spring is reduced to 45 °, and the fall was increased to 75 °.
Install the sun tracking system is impractical because of its cost is comparable to the price of three solar panels, and the efficiency is increased by 40%. This increases the likelihood of damage due to wind gusts. In other words, put two solar panels cheaper and quieter.
If you are installing solar panels on the flat roof (roofing, sheet metal), try to lift the solar panel at least a few centimeters. So, to reduce the "purged". If wavy (slate), this is not necessary, but will not hurt.
Ideal if the roof slope is flat and oriented to the south. In this case, the ramp screwed to the size of the solar module, two brackets, with the removal of the upper edge of the roof about 70 cm, and in the corners of the module is fixed above the ribs so that between it and the solar module was 15-20 centimeters.
Similarly, we can proceed, dangling a solar panel on the lower corners of the roof, is preferable. In the case of wavy roof instead apply corner pipes of suitable diameter.
If you are installing solar panels on the fronton, it is advisable to paint it and overhangs of the roof in bright colors.
This will increase the amount of reflected, scattered radiation and reduce the heat in the solar area. Also, the walls will protect your home from extreme temperatures day / night.
Solar module itself should be positioned horizontally, it reduces the temperature difference between the top / bottom half, compared with a vertical arrangement. Lowering the temperature by a few degrees to significantly affect the efficiency of solar batteries. Even one percent of the power for the season turns out considerably.
Try to install a solar panel at maximum illumination, nezatenyaemom, ventilated, bright place. The solar panel converts the reflected and scattered light, with rear side is also active.
If in a snowy field install solar module, it converts more at 35--50% of the energy reflected from the snow on the back side. As a result, you get a power higher than said solar cell manufacturers.
Passive protection from the snow comes down to the choice of location and proper installation of solar panels. The photo below shows the results graphically. Solar panels on the roof slope and over the veranda covered with snow and fun on the pediment convert solar radiation into electricity.
In the next photo module is directed to the west, the snow almost never delayed due to lack of space and is blown from the bottom all the way. But mounting stiffness is not very good.
Least of all solar panels of electricity in our climate produce the fall, when reduced daylight hours, and the snow has not yet fallen.
With the first snow, when the reflectivity of the earth's surface is significantly increased, the total illumination scattered radiation increases. It also affects the nature of the terrain. A snowy field reflects up to 90% of the sun's rays or scattered radiation. solar installation angle under these conditions corresponds to latitude minus 15 - 20 degrees.
But dense buildings or forest hardly reflect sunlight. Therefore, in this area it is advisable to increase the angle of inclination to accept the reflected light of the sky and clouds.
Here, a module over the veranda should be raised higher and reduce the angle of inclination. In the picture it is equal to 55 degrees.
In summer, the roof overhang on the gable limits illumination morning and evening sun, which is somewhat offset by the height of solstice.
The article mainly benefited the following online resources: